Full Circle: The New Year – Comin’ Back ‘Round!

 

Zenith Gallery has begun the New Year with a new exhibit “Full Circle.” The show will be on display at our location at 1111 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20004. The show dates are January 13th – April 30th. The show features the work of two artists who work in different materials but who both utilize the motif of the circle (sometimes in two dimensions, sometimes in three). In contemplating this motif, we realized that the symbolism of this shape is quite appropriate for a show ushering in the New Year.

 

Zenith has put together a synopsis of some of the more intriguing uses of the circle motif in art, architecture, and culture. Circles are used in art to pull the viewer into the piece. Landscape paintings will use circles to make the viewer feel that they are in the landscape. Other symbols will use circles to include the viewers. A cross with a circle around it will include the viewer in the power of the cross. The cross is sacred and divine and the circle is used to make the viewer feel the same way. Circles unite people, and make people feel whole. The shape of the circle has been used as a symbol since the beginning of time. The circle can represent the power of the female, a symbol for a goddess, and the sun. It can represent infinity, being complete, and being whole.

Circles in Spiritual Practice

 

Religions that focus on the earth at their center and many pagan religions see the circle as a symbol of the female. The circle can symbolize Mother Earth. It represents the spirit of feminine energy and a space that is sacred. The circle will symbolize being closed in and boundaries. It represents cycles. It can represent the womb. It symbolizes being complete. It is a symbol of revolution, of being centered and mobile. It is a symbol of forever. It symbolizes the ongoing energy found in nature. It symbolizes the way the universe includes everything.

 

The meaning of the circle as a symbol is universal, although how it is interpreted will vary from culture to culture. It is seen as a divine sign, sacred to several cultures. For example, quite a few Native American tribes saw the circle as a powerful symbol. The Sioux, one of these tribes, saw the circle as the sun, and as the moon, and themselves as the children of the moon. They therefore used the circle as an abstract symbol, meant to represent their tribe, when painting their shields, their horses, and their teepees – the closest approximation would be the use by Americans of the colors red, white, and blue to represent our nationality and our political affiliation. The ancient Celts used the circle for protection. They believed neither enemy nor evil could cross the boundary. Celtics saw the circle as a symbol of space and the universe.  The ancient Chinese use the circle to symbolize heaven, and a square to symbolize earth. Chinese art has used squares inside of circles. They used the square inside the circle to represent heaven and earth being united. The yin yang symbol is made up of circles. It will represent the two sides of balance.

 

In 1947, a fashion designer by the name of Elsa Schiaparelli introduced the color hot pink to western fashion, and by extension Western culture. She called the shade Shocking Pink, though today the color is more well-known as “magenta.” Like many artists who use color and form to create works of art that display abstract forms in a rhythmic pattern, Zenith artist Carol Schepps is also clearly inspired by how colors such as shocking pink and screaming yellow bounce off one another, yet you can sense through Spiritual Artwork the titles she gives her work that she is also celebrating the sun, Mother Earth, and the beauty of natural phenomena.

 

Carol Schepps
“Brilliant Suns Series: Luminous Suns”
Hand Dyed and Commercial Cotton, Machine Stitched Tapestry 52” x 39”
On display at: Zenith’s “1111 Sculpture Space”
1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20004

 

 

In Zen Buddhism, an ensō is a circle that is hand-drawn in one or two uninhibited brushstrokes to express a moment, which the mind is free to let the body create only when the mind has achieved, through meditation, a state wherein one’s thoughts can best be described as ‘nothingness.’ The ensō symbolizes absolute enlightenment, strength, elegance, the universe, and mu (the void). It is characterized by a minimalist aesthetic born of Japanese design sensibilities.   This spiritual practice of drawing ensō or writing Japanese calligraphy for self-realization is called hitsuzendō (way of the brush). Some artists draw ensō with an opening in the circle, while others close the circle.

 

Ensō exemplifies the various dimensions of the Japanese wabi-sabi perspective and aesthetic: Fukinsei (asymmetry, irregularity), kanso (simplicity), koko (basic; weathered), shizen (without pretense; natural), yugen (subtly profound grace), datsuzoku (freedom), and seijaku (tranquility). Wabi-sabi, although difficult to clearly define, essentially embraces the beauty that is found in natural objects and natural materials, and endorses the artist’s use of imperfection, as it more closely resembles the natural world – a world comprised of uneven surfaces, organic forms, and rough edges.

 

Art Pieces

Ensō by Kanjuro Shibata

Black and Red Ink on Rice Paper

Circa: 2000

 

Now let’s look at another piece of work from this recent Zenith Show “Full Circle.” Here is a sculpture by artist Len Harris, titled “Still a Chance.” The repeating circle within circle motif here is interesting for several reasons. First, because as it is repeating its’ self over and over, it puts one in mind of electrons spinning around within an atom – as well as the orbits of the planets in our solar system around the sun. The piece is wonderfully crafted, and you get the sense of a real mastery of engineering – in fact, it may come as little surprise to learn that Len Harris formally worked as an engineer at NASA. Having said this, another component of this sculpture that is worth noting is the subtle way it embraces the wabi-sabi aesthetic in tandem with the superlative craftsmanship – not one of those ‘circles’ is perfectly round. Finally, we want to remark on how much we enjoy the use of light and dark tones in the wood, which gives the piece a sense of being illuminated from within and adds to it’s visual appeal.

 

Spiritual Artwork

Len Harris

“Still a Chance”
Wood 27” x 29” x 26”

On display at Zenith’s “1111 Sculpture Space

1111 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington DC 20004

 

 

Circles in Modern Abstract Artworks

 

The creator of the first modern abstract paintings, Wassily Kandinsky was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. In his youth, he studied law and economics at the University of Moscow. He was 30 years old when he began to study art, at the University of Munich. He was not immediately accepted into the school as an art student, and so in the meantime he began learning art independently, gaining artistic insight from Monet’s Haystacks and Richard Wagner’s musical composition Lohengrin. The devotion to inner beauty remained a central theme in his art. Let’s look at one piece by Kandinsky, Circles in a Circle, to delve a bit further into his artistic process and his use of the circle motif:

 

Artwork

 

Wassily Kandinsky
“Circles in a Circle”
Circa: 1923
Oil on Canvas
Philadelphia Museum of Art

 

 

Circles in a Circle demonstrates Wassily Kandinsky’s distinctive style from the early 1920s, a period of time when he began teaching at the Bauhaus in Weimar, Germany, and subsequently moved away from a spontaneous painting style and towards a more geometric composition. In this work, a thick black circle surrounds twenty-six overlapping circles of varying sizes and colors, many of them intersected by straight black lines. In a letter of 1931, he described Circles in a Circle as “the first picture of mine to bring the theme of circles to the foreground.” Two strobes of blue and yellow extending from the top corners cross toward the center of the piece, changing the colors of the circles where they overlap. Although Circles in a Circle is distinctly different from Kandinsky’s paintings of the beginning years of the twentieth century, it reflects his continued belief that certain colors and shapes signify emotions that can be codified and combined into a whole, reflecting the harmony of the cosmos. For Kandinsky, the circle, the most elementary of forms, had symbolic, cosmic significance. In fact, he once famously wrote that: “the circle is the synthesis of the greatest oppositions. It combines the concentric and the exocentric in a single form, and in balance.”

 

Stars & Stripes: Zenith Salutes the Flag!

Vex…a what? The study of flags is known as vexillology, from the Latin word vexillum, meaning flag or banner. A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design that is used as a symbol, as a signaling device, or as decoration. The first flags were used to assist military co-ordination on battlefields, and flags have since evolved into a general tool for rudimentary signaling and identification, especially in environments where communication is similarly challenging (such as the maritime environment where semaphore is used.) National flags are potent patriotic symbols with varied wide-ranging interpretations, often including strong military associations due to their original and ongoing military uses. Flags are also used in messaging, advertising, or for other decorative purposes.

 

Let’s discuss the development of the design of some flags we’ve been seeing a lot of recently. In fact, let’s get deep into three of the strongest statements flags are making these days. Let’s talk about the Rainbow Pride Flag, the Black Standard Flag being flown by Jihadists, and the Confederate Flag. Then, let’s look at how three Zenith Gallery artists are turning messages of terror, homophobia, racism, and despair UPSIDE down – as they incorporate flags into works of art promoting racial harmony, embracing racial identity, affirming and supporting marriage equality, and finally, making a profound statement about the preciousness of survival in the face of adversary and the enduring nature of American democracy.

 

From Wikipedia: “The LGBT community has adopted certain symbols for self-identification which demonstrate unity, pride, shared values, and allegiance to one another. LGBTQ symbols communicate ideas, concepts, and identity both within their communities and to mainstream culture. The two most-recognized international LGBTQ symbols are the pink triangle and the rainbow flag. The pink triangle, employed by the Nazis in World War II as a badge of shame, was re-appropriated but retained negative connotations. The rainbow flag was created to be a more organic and natural replacement without any negativity attached to it.”

 

Stars & StripesThis summer, Zenith Gallery chooses to celebrate the spirit of the American ideals of democracy, self-expression, justice, truth, social freedom, personal freedom, and true equality. That is to say, our most recent exhibit celebrates and explores the American people and American society that we aspire towards, if not always perfectly achieving. We’re doing this by presenting a two-site exhibit “Stars and Stripes: Zenith Salutes the Flag!” This two-site show features over 20 different artist’s depictions and interpretations of the American flag, in over 60 works of art. This intriguing exhibit was conceived in tandem with the release of the book “Stars and Stripes: The American Flag in Contemporary Art” by E. Ashley Rooney and Stephanie Standish, published by Schiffer Publishing Company. Both our two-site show and this book focus on celebrating how artists have incorporated the colors and symbols in the American flag within their own art, to convey various themes and to play off other motifs and designs.

 

Rainbow Pride Flag

A street sign in Philadelphia, incorporating the modern version of the rainbow pride flag.

Flags and Marriage Equality

The recent Supreme Court ruling on the legality of gay weddings is being celebrated across the country, and Zenith could not be more thrilled. To represent the pride and excitement they feel, Americans are ‘waving’ the Rainbow Pride flag. This   iconic symbol of gay pride is showing up all over social media, on the evening news, on coffee mugs, and even in attire. You may recall that the original emblem adapted by the Gay Pride movement to represent LGBT culture was the pink triangle? You may also recall that the Nazi party used a pink triangle to label ‘sexual deviants,’ just as the Jews were labeled with a gold star.   The evolution from pink triangle to rainbow is interesting, and when you think about it, also makes perfect sense. From Wikipedia: “The LGBT community has adopted certain symbols for self-identification which demonstrate unity, pride, shared values, and allegiance to one another. LGBTQ symbols communicate ideas, concepts, and identity both within their communities and to mainstream culture. The two most-recognized international LGBTQ symbols are the pink triangle and the rainbow flag. The pink triangle, employed by the Nazis in World War II as a badge of shame, was re-appropriated but retained negative connotations. The rainbow flag was created to be a more organic and natural replacement without any negativity attached to it.” Gilbert Baker designed the original, eight-stripe version of the rainbow pride flag in 1978. In late 1978, a seven-stripe version was developed due to a shortage of hot pink fabric at the factories producing the new flag. In 1979, a six-color version was developed, so that the flag would have an even number of stripes and therefore look better when hung vertically on lampposts. In this version, indigo is interchangeable with royal blue. This is the version that has been popular ever since.

 

FlagZenith Artist Jennifer Wagner created the mosaic piece “Pride (See Yourself, Be Yourself)” in celebration of the recent Supreme Court decision to legalize LGBT marriage nationwide. Her work was made with a team of youths, some of who identify as transgender, some of whom identify as gay or lesbian. The spirit of working in collaboration to celebrate this profoundly impactful legal decision energized Wagner. To paraphrase Wagner’s explanation of the creation of this piece: ‘how could we not do it? When my team and I heard about the Supreme Court decision, with tears in our eyes, we conceived of a piece that spoke to the struggles and the challenges that led up to the moment when the justices said YES.’ The wording on the piece are as important as her incorporation of the rainbow flag motif:

 

“This flag is for those who had to hide,
For those who cried,
And for those who died.
See yourself, Be yourself.”

 

Flags and Terrorism

TerrorismThe “Black Standard” Islamic State flag being flown by the terrorist organization ISIS also comes to mind as a flag that is ‘front and center’ in recent days. The Islamic State flag (aka “Black Standard” or “Black Banner” has existed long before ISIS was established.

 

In fact, there have been multiple versions of this flag throughout history. Its earliest incarnation can be traced to the advent of Islam in 7th century C.E., where Muhammad allegedly spread his teachings under the Black Standard. He adopted this banner custom from the ancient Romans, who conquered the world under the Aquila, or eagle, banner. Mohammed may have even adopted the eagle name, as early accounts of his conquest cite that he referred to his banner as “the banner of the eagle” also. As various sects of Islam developed throughout the coming centuries, the Black Standard began to stand for various eschatological ideologies. Today it is mostly identified with extremist Sunnism and Jihadism. Islamic tradition states that the Quraysh had a black liwā’ and a white-and-black rāya, and thus the origin of the colors and the symbolic meaning behind them. They represent the Quraysh, a holy text that in turn represents the words of Allah. The Pashtun tradition of using a version of The Black Standard with a white shahada (Islamic creed) inscription as a military ensign, dates back to the 18th-century. It is this version of The Black Standard that was adopted by the Taliban, and thus by Al-Qaeda, in the 1990s. This usage was adopted by the global Jihadism movement in the early 2000s, and in the 2010s by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS).

 

In direct opposition to the message embraced by those who wave the Jihadism movement flag, Zenith Gallery artist Dalya Luttwak transformed the colors and shapes found within the design of the American flag into a profound, graceful, and powerful memorial for those who were lost on 9/11.

 

TowersIn her painted steel piece “Tribute to New York City,” Dalya evokes the skyscrapers and the rubble of the World Trade Center attack. Luttwak’s version of the attack…really, it’s a bit like seeing a very simplified model of the aftermath – is far more complex and intriguing than merely a few pieces of painted steel. Let’s look a little more closely at her work. First, color. She’s included the classic American flag palette of red, white and blue. Blue at the base is evocative of both the harbor and the sky (from out of which the planes flew), but it also could represent the holes in the ground and the blackened rubble. White horizontal and vertical planes can be seen to represent both the negative ‘empty’ space where the towers used to be, and also very simplified skyscrapers themselves. They are both ‘there’ and ‘not there.’ Being both ‘there’ and ‘not there’ is what a memorial speaks to, on the human level as well. Finally, red – red is so powerful. In our culture, red represents blood, pain, anger, and savage fury. In our culture, red also represents a different kind of passion – love. Luttwak has achieved a piece that upon closer examination incorporates the strong extreme sense of both loss and presence, passionate pain and passionate love. Perhaps she is suggesting we respond to the fury and the anger of the terrorists with love. Perhaps she is saying love will conquer all? After all, the red is ‘on top’ of the rubble. Whatever your final assessment, you can’t deny the piece is both elegant and eloquent. And, it’s extremely patriotic, but it does not ever feel jingoistic. Quite an achievement – and we are thrilled to showcase this work.

 

Flags and Racism

Lastly, but certainly not least, there is the infamous Confederate flag. This divisive image has been experiencing a surge in appearances due to recent events that can be added to the long, tangled, sad, and maddening history of slavery and the oppression in these United States. The history of the design of the Confederate flag is interesting. William Porcher Miles, the chairman of the Flag and Seal committee of the Confederate States of America (CSA) government, designed this flag. The now-popular variant of the Confederate flag was rejected as the national flag of the Confederate government in 1861. Instead, the Army of Northern Virginia, under General Robert E. Lee, adopted it as a battle flag. In fact, there were four successive national flag designs that served as the official national flags of the Confederate States of America (the “Confederate States” or the “Confederacy”) during its existence from 1861 to 1865. None of these are what is currently known as the “Confederate flag.”

 

Despite never having historically represented the CSA as a country, it is commonly referred to as “the Confederate Flag” and has become a widely recognized symbol of the American south and American southern culture. It is also known as the rebel flag or the Dixie flag. The “rebel flag” has therefore become synonymous with plantation culture, the white supremacy movement, conservative neo-separatist political beliefs that romanticize the Civil War era, as a symbol – the culture of slavery within the United States, and the systemic, widespread racist treatment of African Americans throughout our history, including present-day racism. Supporters of the flag claim they are celebrating Southern pride and Southern heritage. Several Southern states have incorporated the rebel flag in their state flag design. A 2011 Pew Research Center poll revealed that 30% of Americans have a “negative reaction” when “they see the Confederate flag displayed.”  According to the same poll, 9% of Americans have a positive reaction.

 

Here is a photo of an original “Stars and Bars” Flag of the Confederate States of America, captured by Union Army soldiers in Columbia, South Carolina in 1861. This is the first of four official national flag designs adapted by the Confederate States of America.

Here is a photo of an original “Stars and Bars” Flag of the Confederate States of America, captured by Union Army soldiers in Columbia, South Carolina in 1861. This is the first of four official national flag designs adapted by the Confederate States of America.

As a result of these varying perceptions, there have been a number of political controversies surrounding the use of the Confederate battle flag at sporting events, at Southern universities, and on public buildings. Southern historian Gordon Rhea further wrote in 2011 that: “It is no accident that Confederate symbols have been the mainstay of white supremacist organizations, from the Ku Klux Klan to the skinheads. The KKK did not appropriate the Confederate battle flag simply because it was pretty. They picked it because it was the flag of a nation dedicated to their ideals: “that the negro is not equal to the white man.” Ideals, incidentally, quoted straight from The Cornerstone Speech, also known as the Cornerstone Address, was an oration delivered by Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens at the Athenaeum in SavannahGeorgia, on March 21, 1861. The Confederate flag, we are told, represents heritage, not hate.

 

Here is a photo of the current state flag for the state of Mississippi, which incorporates the rebel flag in the upper left corner.

Here is a photo of the current state flag for the state of Mississippi, which incorporates the rebel flag in the upper left corner.

Why should we celebrate a heritage grounded in hate, a heritage whose self-avowed reason for existence was the exploitation and debasement of a sizeable segment of its population? In fact, we at Zenith Art Gallery REFUSE to participate in this disgusting sham, and we don’t believe it is about ‘heritage…’ unless by ‘heritage’ you mean the systemic abuse of thousands of humans within the horrific lifestyle that is, and was, slavery. We say “is” because we acknowledge that slavery still exists, both abroad and, to a limited extent, here–because, although it is no longer government sanctioned, there are still cases reported each year of individuals found enslaved within the United States.

 

The American FlagMessages and symbolic meanings conveyed in flags are often determined by cultural context. One of our artists, Curtis Woody, speaks to his own life experience, as an African American, and through his own lens, manages to express the universal voice of the African America – throughout our history – in the work “Freedom Isn’t Free.” Curtis uses a format he refers to as “quilt” paintings (collage) to incorporate images and text, along side bold graphics and subtle textures, creating a piece that is one part historic record, and one part artistic expression. The delicate lace he has printed over the black profile on the bottom segment reminds us of a person sitting in a parlor behind lace curtains. On the other hand, it also evokes for us the thousands of Africans, and African Americans forced to live lives in a state of illiteracy, anonymity, and oppression. After all, the person in profile lacks any defining features – they are anonymous. Whether this is by choice is indeterminate. Are they a rich white civilian who wishes to remain behind the lace curtains, outside reproach, blissfully ‘ignorant’ of what privilege they enjoy, and at what price? We don’t know.

 

 

 

 

Why People Make Art and Perform Artistic Acts

Ladies and Gentlemen, let’s talk about why people make art and perform artistic acts. One of the reasons people make art is to express their thoughts and feelings about what is going on in their world today. And, these days, with our 24/7 news feed, with social media running on hyper-drive, with phones that are almost secondarily considered phones and often primarily considered cameras, social secretaries, soap boxes, and day planners…well, let’s just simplify it – there is no shortage of inspiration for artists.

 

Let’s take a moment to consider some of the more upsetting, frightening stories of the times: the Charlie Hebdo attack on cartoonists and the subsequent attack on innocent Parisians in a Jewish grocery store, the abduction and torture of innocent young girls in Nigeria, death and destruction throughout the Middle East courtesy of ISIS, the recent Russian and Ukrainian territorial conflict in the Crimean peninsula, young Black men shot seemingly simply because they are – young, male, and Black, living in the United States, and in the wrong place at the wrong time. Guns, bombs, terrorism, and fear mongering abound.

 

Artists see and hear these stories, and they respond. They mirror what is going on, they reflect it back for their comrades to “see.” Their work is a reflection, in this way, of their times. Often, the most powerful work carries on, and becomes available for future generations to discover. Artwork offers future generations insight into how our society felt about the world we were living in, and people, places, and things in that world. That’s the power of art – it endears beyond the moment, preserving the feelings, ideas, and mood of that moment – a time capsule comprised of poetry, paintings, photographs, buildings, fashion, sculptures, dance, theatre, music, and so forth.

 

 

PicassoWarHere are two powerful examples of these phenomena. First, a painting by Pablo Picasso (above) and a photograph of the very event his painting depicts (right):

 

Of course, many of you already are familiar with this painting. It’s Guernica. It’s one of the most important works of art ever created, certainly one of the most powerful depictions of the atrocity of war ever conceived. Guernica is a portrayal of the aerial destruction of a Basque town by fascists during the Spanish Civil War. It’s also a groundbreaking work in that it does not limit its depiction of the war to a photo-realistic depiction, but rather includes the psychological and metaphysical aftermath. Around the world, images copied from and inspired by it have appeared on placards, fliers, and t-shirts. After the U.S. bloodbath in Fallujah in 2004, Pepe Escobar of the Asia Times wrote that “Fallujah is the new Guernica,” and journalists Jonathan Steele and Dahr Jamail referred to the siege as “Our Guernica.” In a 1945 interview, Picasso expressed the below sentiment. Later, Boeck and Sabartes include this quote in their biography “Picasso,” which was published by Harry N. Abrams in 1955.

 

What do you think an artist is? An imbecile who has nothing but eyes if he is a painter, or ears if he is a musician, or a lyre at every level of his heart if he is a poet, or nothing but muscles if he is a boxer? Quite the contrary, he is at the same time a political being, constantly aware of what goes on in the world, whether it be harrowing, bitter, or sweet, and he cannot help being shaped by it. How would it be possible not to take an interest in other people, and to withdraw into an ivory tower from participation in their existence? No, painting is not interior decoration. It is an instrument of war for attack and defense against the enemy.

 

Now, let’s take a look at “The Ascent of Man” by one of our artists, Reuben Neugass. This piece features ink on wooden panels. The overall dimensions are 12” x 40.” The connection the artist makes between instruments of war and profits is blunt, powerful, and profound.

indexPerhaps most telling is the last panel, which depicts an absence of anything – an utter void – nothingness. Let’s hope we learn from our mistakes before we reach this phase in our ‘ascent.’

 

Joy and SorrowHere’s another piece, by another one of our artists, to consider. The artist is Carol Newmyer. The piece is titled “Joy and Sorrow.” It’s a cast bronze piece, depicting the universal struggle for humanity to rise above our baser natures and achieve a transcendent state of peace and nirvana. One figure is reaching out enthusiastically and joyfully, ready to leap into action and embracing the possibilities. Their back is arched, their arms are spread wide, they are lifting their head up, kicking their leg out – it’s as open as a human can physically be, a jubilant stance. Meanwhile, the other figure in this piece is sorrowfully closed off. It is as if the artist is saying that being open brings joy, while being closed brings only sorrow. This is worth contemplating, when we consider how we could prevent any future terrorist attacks – in Paris, in New York City, at the finish line of the Boston Marathon, in Jerusalem, or elsewhere. Let’s take Carol’s advice and be open to what our world has to offer, and present ourselves as joyfully aware, rather than closed off and turned inwards.